In order for a contract to be concluded, the parties must be subject to mutual consent (also known as the Assembly of Spirits). This result is usually achieved by the offer and acceptance that does not change the terms of the offer, which is known as the « reflection rule. » An offer is a definitive statement about the supplier`s willingness to be bound if certain conditions are met.  If an alleged acceptance alters the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance, but a counter-offer and, therefore, a rejection of the original offer. The single trade code has the rule of item 2-207, although the UCC only regulates goods transactions in the United States. Since a court cannot read the minds, the intention of the parties is objectively interpreted from the point of view of a reasonable person, as found in the first English case Smith v. Hughes . It is important to note that if an offer indicates a particular type of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated by that method is valid.  Factual allegations in a contract or when obtaining the contract are considered guarantees or assurances. Traditionally, guarantees are factual commitments imposed by a contractual remedy, regardless of importance, intent or trust.
 Representations are traditionally pre-contract statements that permit an unlawful act (for example. (B) the unlawful act) where the misrepresced presentation is negligence or fraud;  Historically, an unlawful act was the only act available, but in 1778, the breach of the guarantee became a separate contractual action.  In American law, the distinction between the two is somewhat blurred;  Guarantees are viewed primarily as contract-based lawsuits, while false statements of negligence or fraud are due to unlawful acts, but there is a confusing mix of jurisprudence in the United States.  In modern English law, sellers often avoid using the term « represents » to avoid claims under the Misrepresentation Act 1967, whereas in America « Warrants and Represents » is relatively common.  Some modern commentators suggest avoiding words and replacing « state » or « consent, » and some forms of models do not use words;  However, others disagree.  As noted above, there are a number of contracts that the courts will only apply if they are in writing. These contracts fall under the Fraud Act or a set of rules requiring the specific types of contracts that must be entered into in writing, otherwise they are not valid. The law on fraud may vary from state to state, but in general, the following contracts must be established in writing to be legally applicable: there are specific factors that could invalidate a contract and not make it legally enforceable if the contract were otherwise legally binding.