Lenzen M, Moran D, Kanemoto K, et al. International trade poses a threat to biodiversity in developing countries. Nature. 2012;486 (7401):109-12 doi.org/10.1038/nature11145. Transparent negotiation processes, more consultation, participation and openness to public and legislative control – e.g. B by critical points that publish draft treaties, as the EU has done for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership . According to the European Commission, this is the rule for all its trade negotiations, within the framework of active engagement « with civil society and public opinion in the context of civil society dialogues and dialogues with citizens »  p.19. The commitment would also be developed and published in the early stages of treaty development, with broad negotiating positions (as stated in the EU)  p.7 to 8. Such transparency is essential, but it does not itself allow for genuine consultation and participation. It would also require civil society representatives to participate in the development of draft treaties, in negotiations, in monitoring all agreements after they are implemented and evaluated. It is also important to note that a free trade agreement is a reciprocal agreement that is authorized by Article XXIV of the GATT. Autonomous trade agreements for developing and least developed countries are permitted by the 1979 decision by the signatories of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (« empowerment clause ») on differentiated and more favourable treatment, reciprocity and increased participation of developing countries.
It forms the legal basis for the WTO`s Generalized Preference System (GSP).  Free trade agreements and preferential trade agreements (as mentioned by the WTO) are considered an exception to the MFN principle.  Multinationals are important players in international and national politics . They influence AI as important drivers of their architecture and benefit from it. « Big business… have disproportionate power in such agreements and benefit from their rules, which they are able to enforce through new dispute resolution mechanisms. » Multinational companies have an influence on the content of TIAs (for example. B through access to draft contracts and lobbying power) and non-WTO TIAs, strengthening the power of multinationals by making investor-state disputes accessible . Current treaty development processes can hinder the recognition of common health and good prospects, both in WTO TIAs and non-WTO members.
This can be a barrier, even for industrialized countries, to achieve the desired results, but the obstacles are more acute for developing countries with small economies. There are a number of factors that influence small economies, as they participate in IDNs, including limited human resources and technical capabilities  p. 22 to 23. There are also issues of procedural fairness in the functioning of the WTO, such as the basic negotiation process itself, based on political and economic power  p.27 . Current TIA dispute resolution mechanisms pose particular problems for poorer countries .